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    Ecologia, economia e gestão de paisagem na Amazônia

    Com o artigo intitulado "A social and ecological assessment of tropical land-uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network", o ecólogo Toby Gardner, pesquisador da Universidade de Cambridge e do Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia - INCT Biodiversidade e Uso da Terra na Amazônia, apresenta na publicação britânica Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B a abordagem multidisciplinar da Rede Amazônia Sustentável – RAS.

    O tema desta edição da Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B é “Ecologia, economia e gestão de uma paisagem de fronteira agroindustrial no sudeste da Amazônia”. Os artigos tratam de um grande desafio para a sociedade amazônica: alimentar uma população crescente com demandas continuas por alimentos. Como a expansão demográfica impulsiona a expansão da fronteira agropecuária, a publicação indaga nesta edição: quais são as consequências ecológicas da expansão agrícola na Amazônia? E como evitar o empobrecimento ecológico e social da região.

    Confira abaixo a lista de artigos:

     

     

    Ecology, economy, and management of an agroindustrial frontier landscape in the southeast Amazon

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0152

    by Brando, Paulo; Coe, Michael; DeFries, Ruth; Azevedo, Andrea

    The articles in this special issue address a major challenge facing our society: feeding a population that is simultaneously growing and increasing its per capita food consumption, while preventing widespread ecological and social impoverishment. These contributors address some of the key questions about the future of tropical ecosystems: What are the consequences of land use change for freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems? What are the large-scale conservation opportunities that could reverse or mitigate the negative ecological, social, and economic consequences of crop and cattle production? What are the key forest governance lessons to be learned from Brazil’s Amazonian agricultural frontier? Contact: Dr. Paulo Brando, Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazônia, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo. , Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo.

    Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: Harbinger or exception for other tropical forests?

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0173
    by DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Verchot, Lou; Macedo, Marcia

    The analysis assesses how representative the drivers underlying Mato Grosso’s export-oriented deforestation are in other tropical forest countries.  We also assess how pervasive the governance and technical monitoring capacity that enabled Mato Grosso’s decline in deforestation is in other countries.  We find that between 41 and 54 percent of 2000-05 deforestation in tropical forest countries (other than Brazil) occurred in countries with drivers similar to Brazil.   However, very few countries had national-level governance and capacity similar to Brazil. The results indicate the increasing importance of agricultural expansion to produce agricultural commodities across the tropics, and the dearth of governance to control deforestation. Contact: Dr. Ruth DeFries, Columbia University, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo.


    Responding to climate change and the global land crisis: REDD+, market transformation, and low emissions rural development

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0167

    by Nepstad, Daniel; Boyd, William; Stickler, Claudia; Bezerra, Tathiana; Azevedo, Andrea

    Climate change and land shortages are beginning to clash with important implications for food security and forest conservation. In this review, we examine some of the most promising policy and market mechanisms for managing these dual, interacting problems.  "REDD+", designed to reward tropical nations that lower GHG emissions from deforestation together with market transformation that is beginning to exclude unsustainable farmers and ranchers from supply chains hold promise. Contact: Dr. Daniel Nepstad, Amazon Environmental Research Institute, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo. , 508-566-1963


    Land use-driven stream warming in southeastern Amazonia

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0153
    by Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; DeFries, Ruth; Uriarte, Maria; Brando, Paulo; Neill, Christopher; Walker, Wayne

    Large-scale cattle and crop production are the primary drivers of deforestation in the Amazon today. Although deforestation rates have recently plummeted, our study suggests that current management of agricultural lands may be increasing water temperatures in the region’s streams. Using a combination of field measurements and satellite data, we found that stream temperature is strongly influenced by riparian forest buffers and small impoundments. Our results indicate that stream temperature can be readily managed in agricultural landscapes, providing support for policies that encourage conservation of riparian forests and limit of the number of impoundments in emerging agricultural frontiers. Contact: Dr. Marcia Macedo, Woods Hole Research Center, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo. , 5084441538

    Watershed responses to Amazon soybean cropland expansion and intensification (opinion piece)
    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0425

    by Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael; Riskin, Shelby; Krusche, Alex; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric; Figueira, Michela; Scheffler, Raphael; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda

    The expansion soybean agriculture in the Amazon can alter stream flows and water quality. The deep and highly permeable soils where soybean cultivation has expanded act to buffer streams against changes to storm runoff and water chemistry that are common in northern agricultural regions. Despite resistance to hydrological and chemical changes, streams in soybean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology and increase downstream flooding, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales. Contact: Dr. Christopher Neill, Marine Biological Laboratory, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo.


    The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soybean fields
    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0154

    by Riskin, Shelby; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Michela; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    Fertilizer-intensive soybean agriculture has recently expanded in Amazônia, and while intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) across a chronosequence of soybean fields and forests in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Fertilizer P accumulated in shallow soils (0-10 cm) but did not reach below 20 cm. Soils had high capacities to sorb P in less-plant-available forms and this did not change with time. The risk of P losses to waterways appears to be low from this system. Contact: Dr. Shelby Riskin, Brown University, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo. , 4165752250


    Pesticide use and biodiversity conservation in the Amazonian Agricultural Frontier (opinion piece)

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0378
    by Schiesari, Luis; Waichman, Andrea; Brock, Theo; Adams, Cristina; Grillitsch, Britta

    The Amazon is the largest area of the world currently undergoing frontier agricultural settlement. Because megadiverse, it is where the largest number of species is exposed to hazardous land management practices. Pesticide management practices in the Amazon range from gross misapplication to highly technical standards that meet and even surpass legal requirements depending on producer´s capital and technical resources, and targeted market. At all scales of production there is ample room for risk reduction. Given the complexity of pesticide production, regulation and application, risk reduction can only be achieved through responsibility-sharing by, and involvement of, a wide diversity of stakeholders. Contact: Dr. Luis Schiesari, University of São Paulo, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo.


    Ecological restoration of Xingu Basin headwaters: Motivations, engagement, challenges, and perspectives (opinion piece)

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0165

    by Giselda, Durigan; Guerin, Natalia; Costa, José Nicola

    The deforestation of the headwaters of the Xingu Basin in the Amazon has strong negative effects on the ecosystems and indigenous peoples downstream. To offset some of these negative effects, the campaign “Y Ikatu Xingu” was launched, aiming at riparian forests restoration.  After six years, despite the remarkable advances in terms of technical innovation and broad social involvement, the restored areas represent only a small portion of the expected. The still high costs of restoration, the uncertainties of legislation and also the global economy have constrained the expansion of restored forests and need additional efforts and strategies to be overcome. Contact: Dr. Durigan Giselda, Forestry Institute state of São Paulo, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo. , 55-18-33251045


    Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia (opinion piece)

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0155

    by Coe, Michael; Marthews, Toby; Costa, Marcos; Galbraith, David; Greenglass, Nora; Acioli, Hewlley; Levine, Naomi; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul; Nobre Muza, Michel; Powell, Thomas; Saleska, Scott; Solorzano, Luis; Wang, JingFeng

    Protected areas are the cornerstone of Amazon forest conservation. However, research suggests that protection alone may not be enough to maintain the ecological integrity of forests in the Amazon over the next several decades. Climate changes occurring as a result of feedbacks from deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in significant forest degradation in protected and non-protected areas through drought and fire mortality. This is particularly true in the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia. Long-term conservation of forests may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property. Contact: Dr. Michael Coe, Woods Hole Research Center, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo.


    Understory fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0163

    by Morton, Douglas; Le Page, Yannick; DeFries, Ruth; Collatz, George; Hurtt, George

    Repeated fire exposure could transform intact Amazon forests into fire-adapted woodlands or grasslands, a process described as “savannization.”  We used satellite data to examine the frequency of fire damages in Amazon forests between 1999-2010.  Forests that burned more than once were concentrated along the eastern extent of Amazon forests, with some areas burning five times in the past decade.  The patterns of fire activity suggest that climate is a strong control over initial and repeated burning, such that seasonal climate anomalies may be a good predictor of both current and future fire risks in Amazonia. Contact: Dr. Douglas Morton, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo. , 301-614-6688


    Effects of high frequency understory fires on woody plant regeneration in southeastern Amazonian forests

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0157

    by Balch, Jennifer; Massad, Tara; Brando, Paulo; Nepstad, Daniel; Curran, Lisa

    Our results corroborate the overall hypothesis that understory fires can alter early successional patterns of southeast Amazonian forests. Repeated fires not only substantially reduced stem density but also shifted the regeneration mode from seedling recruitment to higher contributions from resprouting. After two and five fires within six years, the community similarity was comparable among treatments, but with increasing fire frequency there was a decline in species diversity and loss of rare species. Contact: Dr. Jennifer Balch, The Pennsylvania State University, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo.


    Testing the Amazon savannization hypothesis: fire effects on invasion of a neotropical forest by native cerrado and exotic pasture grasses

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0427

    by Silvério, Divino; Brando, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer; Putz, Francis; Nepstad, Daniel; Oliveira-Santos, Claudinei; Bustamante, Mercedes

    Interactions between wildfires fires and forest invasion by grasses are expected to cause large-scale forest degradation in the tropics due to changes in climate and land use. To reveal the mechanisms for such degradation, we document the effects of experimental understory fires on local fire regimes and the likelihood of ecosystem transitions. Over an 8-year period, we show that increased fire frequencies caused an abrupt transition from tree to grass dominance, with evidence for a strong positive feedback between grass fuels and fire intensity. Our results indicate that synergies between fires and invasive C4 grasses jeopardize the future of tropical forests. Contact: Dr. Divino Silvério, Universidade de Brasília, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo. , 06131072987

    Promoting socioeconomic development through agricultural intensification in Mato Grosso

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0168
    by VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie; de Sa, Rebecca; Mahr, Dan; Mustard, John

    Brazil's agricultural heartland already rivals the United States in production and is still expanding. From the second half of the last decade, farmers accomplished this without devastating deforestation. This article shows that this approach to agriculture is associated with positive socioeconomic development. We show that areas with more farmland planting two crops each year have higher household incomes and better performing secondary schools. We argue that double cropping raises all incomes and not just those of farm owners, and that, more importantly, it brings investment in public goods like education. Contact: Dr. Leah VanWey, Brown University, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo. , +1-401-863-3184

    The natural and social history of the indigenous lands and protected areas corridor of the Xingu river basin

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0164

    by Schwartzman, Stephan; Villas Boas, Andre; Ono, Katia; Fonseca, Marisa; Doblas, Juan; Zimmerman, Barbara; Junqueira, Paulo; Salazar, Marcelo; Jerozolimski, Adriano; Junqueira, Rodrigo; Torres, Mauricio

    Deforestation still threatens much of the Amazon, but a study of Brazil’s massive Xingu Indigenous Lands and Protected Areas highlights how granting indigenous people control of land and creating government-protected forest areas has reduced deforestation in the Xingu corridor and contributed to the recent plummet in Amazon deforestation. But the Belo Monte and other projected dams, road paving, increasing demand for agriculture commodities and climate change impacts threaten recent gains. Contact: Dr. Stephan Schwartzman, Environmental Defense Fund, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo.

    A social and ecological assessment of tropical land-uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0166

    by Gardner, Toby

    Science has a critical role to play in the development of more sustainable economies. This work presents the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multi-disciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organisations working to assess both social and ecological dimensions of land-use sustainability in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The RAS approach offers particular advantages for studying land-use sustainability by working across large spatial scales and with a diverse array of famers and landholders, and collecting comparable data on both ecological and socioeconomic change. Contact: Dr. Toby Gardner, University of Cambridge, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo.

    The DURAMAZ indicator system: a cross-disciplinary comparative tool for assessing ecological and social changes in the Amazon

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0475

    by Le Tourneau, François-Michel; Marchand, Guillaume; Greissing, Anna; Nasuti, Stéphanie; Droulers, Martine; Bursztyn, Marcel; Léna, Philippe; Dubreuil, Vincent

    During the last twenty years policies and project initiatives have been implemented across the Amazon involving diverse social groups and environmental contexts. They have resulted in mixed outcomes and trade-offs between social and environmental dimensions, making their impact difficult to assess and their successes difficult to generalize. To provide a better understanding of these impacts was the objective of the DURAMAZ research project. It produced a multi-dimensional indicator system designed to allow a holistic view of sustainable development at local and sub-regional levels and a comparative perspective across 12 research sites. Contact: Dr. François-Michel Le Tourneau, CNRS , Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo. , 0144398685

    Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs, and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0160

    by Stickler, Claudia; Nepstad, Daniel; Azevedo, Andrea; McGrath, David

    The Brazilian Forest Code is the most advanced attempt to achieve landscape-wide forest protection through policy regulation. Considered by many to be the backbone of Brazilian environmental policy, it has been hotly debated. We examine the evolution of the Code over time, compliance, and associated economic and ecological effects. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The ecological benefits of compliance with the Code are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance as perceived by landholders. Contact: Dr. Claudia Stickler, Amazon Environmental Research Institute, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo. , 5083606480

    Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon (opinion piece)

    URL after publication: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rstb.2012.0171

    by Galford, Gillian; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the Amazon are contingent upon improved land-use management, driven by the public policies, economic incentives, and social responsibility. Continued low rates of deforestation must be met through increased agricultural production, including ranching intensification, crop diversification, double cropping and rotation, and integrated soil fertility management. However, intensified agricultural production may also increase greenhouse gas emissions, which should be monitored to consider the trade-offs between production and emissions. Incentives to landowners are critical to ensure that negative environmental impacts are reduced through best management practices for increasing agricultural production. Communication between stakeholders will be essential to meet the principles of low-carbon rural development. Contact: Dr. Gillian Galford, University of Vermont, Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo.


    NOTES FOR EDITORS

    Please note that both the media summaries and the journal issue itself represent the views of the authors and not the position of the Royal Society. 

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